How Does Temperature Affect The Kinetic Energy Of Gas Molecules?

How Does Temperature Affect The Kinetic Energy Of Gas Molecules

Kinetic energy falls under the class of two major energy types. When a body is moving, it is said to possess kinetic energy. Water and wind are typical examples of things that possess kinetic energy because they are in motion. Another example of kinetic energy is electricity. One question we will attempt to answer in this article is the question of how does temperature affect the kinetic energy of gas molecules

How does temperature affect the kinetic energy of gas molecules?

When there is an increase in temperature, there is also an increase in the kinetic energy of the molecules. The moment the molecule disturbance increases with an increase in temperature, this also increases the molecule velocity and by extension the kinetic energy. It should be noted that temperature is the average kinetic energy of molecules. We can express temperature in several ways such as through the use of an electron volt.

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What Are The Types Of Kinetic Energy In Gasses?

Kinetic energy can be grouped based on several factors ranging from the patter of motion to the direction of the same. Here is a break-down of the types of kinetic energy:

Rotational Kinetic energy

This is the type of kinetic energy of a revolving mass such as our beloved planet that is known to rotate on its axis. As against horizontal or vertical movements, the body would instead move in a single place.  The rotational kinetic energy amount is largely dependent upon the body of mass angular velocity some other things that help in describing rotating kinetic energy are the distances that exist between a line and mass. Other factors include the moment of inertia which is a measure of changes in rotation to mass resistance.

Translational Kinetic energy

This is the type of energy type that is created as a result of a movement from one point to the other. The quantity of translational energy which an object possesses is largely dependent upon two distinct factors which are the velocity of the object and the mass of the same.  When coming up with an equation to determine the translational kinetic energy.

How Does The Kinetic Theory Of Gases Apply?

The kinetic theory of gasses simply defines a gas as a collection of microscopic particles which have are constantly in random, constant and rapid motion. This randomness is as a result of the particle collisions between themselves and the walls of the containing space.

Furthermore, the kinetic theory of gases goes a great length to explain the microscopic as well as macroscopic features of gases such as viscosity, pressure, temperature, volume, and thermal conductivity by giving credence to their motion and molecular composition. This theory suggests that the pressure from gases is a product of the gas-particle collisions with the containing walls at diverse velocities.

The kinetic theory of gases helps to explain temperature in a rather unique manner different from the thermodynamic definition. Beneath the lens of an optical microscope, the molecules which a liquid is composed of are a bit too large to be seen.

What Are The Assumptions Of A Gas To Be Termed Ideal?

For gas to be termed as ideal, the following assumptions must be made:

  • Gas is made up of minute particles referred to as molecules. The minuteness of the sizes is in such a way that the whole volume of each gas molecule combined is negligible when compared with the total volume of the open ball in which the molecules are contained. This is the same thing as saying that the mean distance that exists between the gas is quite large when compared with their size.
  • The quick-moving particles are bound to constantly collide with the container walls. This collision that occurs between the wall of the container and particles is not elastic while the collisions that occur between the particles are elastic. What this implies is that the molecules can be termed as being of a spherical shape and elastic.
  • The mean kinetic energy of the particles of gas is largely dependent upon the absolute temperature of such a system. It should be noted that the kinetic theory comes with its temperature definition although nothing close to the definition in thermodynamics.
  • The total time for a collision to occur between the wall of the container and the molecule can be considered as negligible when it is correlated with the time between different collisions.

How Does Pressure Affect The Kinetic Energy Of Gas Molecules?

Using the kinetic theory of gases, pressure equates to the force which is applied by the atoms which may be hitting and bouncing from one unit area of the surface of the gas container. First, consider a gas containing N molecules with mass m which is enclosed with a cube that is of volume V=L^3.  The moment a gas molecule makes a collision with the container wall that is perpendicular to the horizontal axis and rebounds going in the reverse direction at the same speed.

What’s The Relationship Between Temperature And Energy?

Based upon the kinetic theory of gases,  all gases are composed of microscopic molecules with travel in a straight line until they collide with another object. When a fire is burning in a room, the energy emanating from the room is transferred to the gas molecules thus making them move quickly and thus collide with each other.

It is important to note that the kinetic energy is directly related to the molecule velocity. With an increase in molecule collision speed also comes an increase in the overall K.E of the gas particles. Temperature can be used as an indicator of the overall kinetic energy of the gas molecules. With an increase in the energy levels of the gas molecules also comes an increase in temperature.

What Is The Relationship Between Average Speed And Kinetic Energy?

With an increase in average kinetic energy and temperature, there also comes an increase in the overall velocity of the gas molecules. The catch here, however, is that all the molecules won’t be moving in the same velocity. The best way to get an ideal figure of the mean velocity of the gas molecules would be o calculate the RMS speed. The RMS is simply the square root of the mean of all the velocities squared.

Because moving particles possess energy, and the increase in speed means an increase in kinetic energy, there is a link that exists between the average kinetic energy of the gas and the RMS speed. This simply implies that a relationship exists between the temperature and the RMS speed.

What Does The Effect Of Temperature On The Kinetic Energy Of Gas Molecules Mean To Me?

You may be wondering what exactly concerns you with the effect of temperature on the mean kinetic energy to you and your life.  Well, most things around you revolve around it, from domestic to industrial related activities. We see it in the heat we feel in a room, to the thawing of ice down to the increase in the temperature of the gas burner. Whichever the case may be, we experience it all around us every other day.

Last Burner

Now that you know the answer to the question of how does temperature affects the kinetic energy of gas molecules, it is important to note that they are all interlinked one way or the other.  One fact you should, however, go home with is that the mean kinetic energy of all the molecules of a gas is the same.  Also, in the majority of cases, the gas molecules do not interact to a significant level with one another but instead regularly hit one another.  Hence a situation where the gas molecules possess the same level of kinetic energy.

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